Publication ethics

Physical Therapy Journal of Indonesia (PTJI) utilized the Committee on Publishing Ethics (COPE) journal rules to address all areas of publication ethics, including how to handle incidents of research and publication misconduct. All papers in this journal involving human or animal subjects should adhere to the Declaration of Helsinki's research ethical principles and the Council for International Organization of Medical Sciences' International Guiding Principles for Biomedical Research (CIOMS). At the start of the Methods section, all articles dealing with original human or animal data must include a declaration on ethics approval.

Furthermore, as previously indicated, the authors must clearly state the signed informed consent acquired from the study participants for studies involving human participants. Author/authors must protect the right to privacy of a patient. The authors must specify how they will collect and store copies of patients' consent forms. Patients or other experiment subjects expressly grant permission to disseminate images or other material that they could use to identify them. If this was not clearly stated in the research consent form, please obtain it or remove the identifying material.

Similarly, authors must indicate the animal care and licensing criteria under which the study was conducted and describe these following the ARRIVE (Animals in Research: Reporting In Vivo Experiments) declaration for animal experiments. If the study did not require ethics approval or any deviation from these typical ethical standards occurred, please explain why.

PTJI applies COPE to fulfill high-quality standards of ethics for publishers, editors, writers, and reviewers based on the above. As a critical topic, Publication Ethics must be well described and thoroughly defined to improve the quality of research around the world. The standard for editors, authors, and reviewers is explained in this section. Furthermore, the publisher has no power to tamper with the integrity of the contents and may only assist in the timely publication of articles. As a result, various guidelines must be observed, as listed below.


For editors
There are various difficulties that editors must address, including 1) Every article published in PTJI is the duty of the editor; 2) Authors must follow the author instructions that we adapted from ICMJE and are guided by the editor; and 3) 3) When it comes to reaching the final decision, the editors play a critical role in communicating with other editors or reviewers. 4) Editors evaluated each article objectively for publication, considering each on its own merits without regard to the authors' nationality, ethnicity, political beliefs, race, religion, gender, seniority, or institutional affiliation. If a potential conflict of interest has been discovered, they must decline their assignment. 5) It is necessary to ensure that the authors' and affiliations' information is not included in the paper given to the reviewer and vice versa. 6) The writers must be notified of the editor's decision based on the reviewers' comments unless they contain abusive or libelous remarks; 7) Editors must honor the author's request, but a person should not review the submission unless it is well-reasoned and realistic; 8) Members of the editorial board and staff guarantee the confidentiality of manuscript submissions. 9) If suspected misbehavior or disputed authorship was discovered, the COPE flowchart was used as a guide for editors.


For reviewers
There are various concerns that reviewers must consider, including 1) It is necessary to be aware of ethical issues and potential research/publication misconduct. 2) Reviewers should tell the journal editors if they cannot finish the assignment in a timely way. 3) Reviewers must maintain the confidentially of the article; 4) Reviewers must decline a potential conflict of interest or potential research misconduct in the manuscript.


For authors
Authors must comply with several requirements, including 1) confirming that the manuscript has not been previously published and that no rights to the article have been transferred elsewhere; 2) confirming that the manuscript has not been previously published and that no rights to the article have been transferred elsewhere, and 3) confirming that the manuscript has not been previously published and that no rights to the article have been transferred elsewhere. 2) The study's originality, as well as a proper citation following the reference format, must be ensured by the Author(s); 3) Plagiarism and self-plagiarism are strictly prohibited in PTJI; 4) 'Salami' publication is also strictly prohibited in PTJI; 5) Author(s) must follow the authorship criteria from ICMJE as explained in the Author's guidelines in PTJI; 6) Any personal information should be blinded by Author(s), such as from forms of description part, photograph, or pedigree. However, if the patient's images were vital and indispensable, the Author could only use an explicit, informed agreement gained from the subject participants for scientific purposes. 7) In the event of human experimentation, the authors have validated that the research procedure adheres to the Helsinki Declaration's ethical norms and domestic and international committees that oversee human experimentation. If there are any uncertainties about whether the research followed the statement, the authors should clarify. 8) If there are concerns of data falsification or fabrication, the authors must provide the editor with the data and specifics of the work. 9) On the ICMJE form disclosure document, authors should disclose any financial interests or connections, direct or indirect, or other situations that might raise the question of bias in work reported or the conclusions, implications, or opinions stated; 10) At the time of submission, policy requires that each Author reveal any financial interests or connections, direct or indirect, or other situations that might raise the question of bias in the work reported or the conclusions, implications, or opinions stated.

When conducting research, submitting papers, and throughout the peer-review process, the PTJI expects the highest ethical standards from its authors, reviewers, and editors. As a result, throughout the review process, a single-blind review approach was used, in which the author names were not hidden from the reviewers.

Manuscripts should not have been published or be in the process of being published elsewhere. Duplicate publication is against the APA code of ethics (APA Publication Manual, 2010) and will result in the submission being rejected quickly. If the editor was unaware of the infringement and the piece was published, a notice of duplicate submission will be issued, along with the ethical infraction.


Reporting Standards & Data Access

The author must accurately and objectively report the findings of his investigation. The information supplied must be correct. The publication must provide enough material and references to allow other researchers to duplicate the results. The author may be asked to provide research data for Editorial Review purposes.


Originality, Acknowledgment of Source, & Confidentiality

The Author must ensure that the manuscript contains only original material. The Author should avoid plagiarism at all costs. It is always necessary to give proper credit to others' efforts. Authors should cite publications that have an impact on the written report. To be reported in the manuscript, information gathered via talks, emails, or discussions with third parties must first get permission from the source. To use confidential information, the Author must have formal permission.


Multiple, Redundant, or Concurrent Publication

Authors are not allowed to publish the same study in more than one journal. Authors are also barred from simultaneously submitting the same paper to multiple journals for publication. Authors are only allowed to submit previously published work in the form of a thesis, lecture material, or electronic preprint.


Authorship of the Paper

Only those with a major contribution should be allowed to write (determine the manuscript's concept, design, execution, or interpretation). All of these individuals should be included as co-authors. Parties involved in certain script areas (for example, language editing) should be acknowledged in the acknowledgments section. The corresponding author should double-check that all co-authors are named in the manuscript and that none are improper. The corresponding author is also responsible for ensuring that all co-authors have approved the work before submitting it for publication in the journal. The authors share responsibility for the work.


Hazards and Human / Animal Subjects

If the article contains chemicals, processes, or equipment that are unusually dangerous, the author should make it appear in the manuscript. The study that used human or animal subjects should be conducted according to applicable laws and institutional regulations. The authors must state in the manuscript that the procedures followed conformed with the rules and guidelines and that they were granted permission to conduct the study. Authors must get formal consent from the patient or the authorities before displaying case details or personal information. If the editor requests it, the author should present all permissions to the editor.


Fundamental Errors in Published Works

If the author discovers substantial flaws or inconsistencies in his published work, they must tell the Journal Editor, who will retract or correct the paper. If the editor discovers the inaccuracy by a third party, the authors must work with the Journal Editor to clarify, improve, or retract the submission.


Image Integrity

Making visual manipulations that modify the meaning of the image is not permissible. Image editing for other objectives can be regarded as a research ethics violation. However, changing the image to improve clarity is permissible.


Submission Declaration and Verification

The submission has never been published before or is currently being considered by another journal (except in an abstract, part of a published lecture or academic thesis, or electronic preprint). Please see our Publication Ethics section for more information on "Multiple, Redundant, or Concurrent Publication."


Changes to Authorship

The authors' list provided at the time of submission is final and should not be altered. Authors are expected to consider including an author order carefully. Any changes to author names should be made only after the paper has been accepted and only if the journal Editor has approval. To make such a change, written confirmation (email, letter) from all authors is required, including confirmation from the author being added or deleted. The Editor will only consider the addition, deletion, or reordering of authors in extreme situations.


Publication Ethics

We are dedicated to ensuring that advertising, reprints, and other commercial money have no bearing on editorial decisions. Although this journal has not yet been accepted into the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE), we are dedicated to following COPE's standards and recommendations.

Our authors, reviewers, and editors will find the following links useful.


Flow-Charts for COPE


Editors and authors must adhere to international standards (

Conflict of Interest Policies, Human and Animal Rights Policies, and Informed Consent Policies (